Q- A male patient presents with patchy loss of hair on scalp, eyebrows and beard. He also gives a history of rapid graying of hair in a few areas. The likely diagnosis is:
b. Anagen effluvium
c. Telogen Effluvium
d. Androgenic aplopecia
Correct answer: a
Single or multiple circumscribed smooth patchy hair loss, most obviously on scalp but frequently involving any hair bearing skin eg. beard, eyebrows, eye lashes, with pathognomic ” Exclamation mark” & “Going gray overnight” phenomenon (i.e., white or gray hairs are frequentely spared). indicate the diagnosis of Alopecia areata.
Features of Alopecia Areata
- – Onset of Alopecia is sudden.
- – Alopecia is well circumscribed and patchy (round or oval patches of baldness).
- – Lesions usually situated on scalp (most common site).
- – Lesions may involve beard of other hair bearing sites such as eyebrows or eyelashes.
- – Skin within the areas of hair loss is normal.
- – Non-inflammed, Non scarring Alopecia.
- – Hair show the pathognomic ‘Exclamation mark’ sign.
- – Believed to be an autoimmune condition.
- – associated with other autoimmune diseases is seen.
- – A positive family history may be obtained.
- – Rapid onset graying of hair may be observed ‘going gray overnight’.
- – The mechanism of rapid graying is thought to be the selective shedding of pigmented hair and retention of the non pigmented (already grey) hair.